Volume 8, Issue 5, September 2020, Page: 73-77
Dependence of Detonation Velocity of Explosives on Effective Atomic Number and Effective Electron Density of the Explosives
Tohe Tessema Teklemariam, Department of Physics, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Vijay Kumar Mittal, Department of Physics, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Received: Sep. 21, 2020;       Accepted: Nov. 6, 2020;       Published: Nov. 19, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajpa.20200805.12      View  16      Downloads  17
Abstract
Detonation velocity is one of the most important characteristics of explosives. For solid hydro carbon-based explosives it is generally greater than 4000 m/s. Detonation velocity depends to some extent upon the particle size of the explosives, increased charge diameter and increased confinement of the explosive. There is no report indicating the dependence of detonation velocity on the effective atomic number and effective electron density of the explosive. In the present work, we have arbitrarily chosen eight explosives. Four of these have detonation velocity between 9400 and 10100 m/s, and the other four has detonation velocity between 4500 and 5300 m/s. Direct method was used to calculate effective atomic number and effective electron densities various explosives. On calculating effective atomic number and effective electron density, it was found that detonation velocity of explosives does depend upon these two parameters. For explosives with high detonation velocity, effective atomic number is high and effective electron density is low while for low detonation velocity explosives it is reverse. It was also found that the variation of effective atomic number and effective electron density as a function of gamma ray energy can be explained on the basis of three different gamma ray inter action mechanism of gamma rays with matter.
Keywords
Explosives, Detonation Velocity, Effective Atomic Number, Effective Electron Density
To cite this article
Tohe Tessema Teklemariam, Vijay Kumar Mittal, Dependence of Detonation Velocity of Explosives on Effective Atomic Number and Effective Electron Density of the Explosives, American Journal of Physics and Applications. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp. 73-77. doi: 10.11648/j.ajpa.20200805.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Peter Krehl, O. K. In ‘History of Shock Waves, Explosions and Impact: A Chronological and Biographical Reference’. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 106. 2008.
[2]
Shivraj Gounhalli, G. Anil Shantappa, and Hanagodimath, S. M. “Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some chemical explosives in the energy range 1KeV–100 GeV”, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4, pp. 2545–2563, 2012.
[3]
Vishwanath, P Singh and Badiger, N. M. (2016), Effective Atomic Number of Dosimetric Interest Organic Compounds, Indian J Pure and Applied Physics, 54, 333-338.
[4]
Shivalinge, Gowda, Krishnaveni, S., Yashoda, T., Umesh, T. K. and Ramakrishna, Gowda (2004), Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds. Pramana, 63, 529–541.
[5]
Han, I., Aygun, M., Demir, L., and Sahin, Y. (2012), “Determination of effective atomic numbers for 3d transition metal alloys with a new semi-empirical approach,” Annals of Nuclear Energy, 39, 56–61.
[6]
Kurudirek, M., Büyükyıldız, M., and Özdemir, Y. (2010), “Effective atomic number study of various alloys for total photon interaction in the energy region of 1keV–100GeV,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 613, 251–256.
[7]
Çelik, A., Çevik, U., Bacaksiz, E., and Çelik, N. (2008), “Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of CuGaSe2 semiconductor in the energy range 6-511 keV”, X-Ray Spectrometry, 37, 490–494.
[8]
Ïçelli, O. (2009), “Measurement of effective atomic numbers of holmium doped and undoped layered semiconductors via transmission method around the absorption edge”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 600, 635–639.
[9]
Kaewkhao, J. and Limsuwan, P. (2010), “Mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers in phosphate glass containing Bi2O3, PbO and BaO at 662 keV,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 619, 295–297.
[10]
Manjunathaguru, V. and T. K. Umesh, T. K. (2006), “Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some biologically important compounds containing H, C, N and O in the energy range 145–1330 keV,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 39, 3969–3981.
[11]
Vegi, A. R. and Mittal, V. K. “Calculation of Atomic Parameters of Bismuth Germinate Detectors”, J of Ultra Scientists of Physical Sciences B 30, pp. 81–87, 2018.
[12]
Teklemariam, T. T., Mittal, V. K. and Chali Yedeta, 2019, “Atomic Parameters of Some Commonly Used Liquid Crystals”, Ethiop J Educ and Science 14, 48–57, 2019.
[13]
Kaçal, M. R., Akdemir, F., Araz, A., Mehmet Fatih Turhan and Rıdvan Durak (2017), Calculation of Absorption Parameters for Selected Narcotic Drugs in the Energy Range from 1 keV to 100 GeV Ferdi Akman, AIP Conference Proceedings 1833, 020083.
[14]
Gounhalli, S. G., Shantappa, A. and Hanagodimath, S. M. (2012), Studies on Mass Attenuation Coefficient, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Narcotic Drugs in the Energy Range 1KeV-100GeV, Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) 2 (2012), 40-48.
[15]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_of_explosive_detonation_velocity.
[16]
Gerwards, L., Guilbert, N., Jensen, K. B. and Levring, H., 2004, “WinXCom—a program for calculating X-ray attenuation coefficients”, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 71, 653–654, 2004.
[17]
Madhusudhan Rao A. S., Narender K., Gopal Krishan Rao K., Gopi Krishna N., and Radha Krishna Murthy (2016). Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers of alkali halides for multi energetic photons. Research J Physical Sci, 1: 11-16.
[18]
Singh K., and Gerward L., (2002). Summary of existing information of gamma ray and X-ray attenuation coefficients of solutions, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 40 (9): 643–649.
[19]
Manohara S. R., Hanagodimath S., and Gerward L., (2008). Energy dependence of effective atomic number for photon energy absorption and photon interactions: study of some biological molecules in the energy range 1keV to 20MeV, Medical Physics, 35 (1): 388-402.
[20]
Gowda S., Krishnaveni S., and Gowda R. (2005). Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30–1333 keV, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B239: 361-369.
Browse journals by subject